They tried to get orders and messages from the “spacemen” for a future reality that would be consistent with their original beliefs. Most studies are unable to test such relations because they do not include all three elements noted in the previous paragraph, although there are a few exceptions (e.g., Kay, Jost, & Young, 2005, Study 1; Warner et al., 2012, Study 4). In one exception, Warner et al. (2012, Study 4) found that the temporal distance of victimization determined the degree to which people endorsed different BJW-defense strategies. When BJW-threat was high, participants who were told the victimization took place in the recent past blamed the victim’s behavior more than did participants told the victimization was in the distant past.

What is cognitive dissonance theory persuasion example?

Cognitive dissonance is an aversive motivational state that occurs when an individual entertains two or more contradictory attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors simultaneously. For example, maybe you know you should be working on your speech, but you really want to go to a movie with a friend.

Third, people are likely to prefer to attain their desired ends in ways that satisfy multiple motives. For example, a person who is the perpetrator versus a third-party observer of an injustice might want to maintain BJW while avoiding feelings of guilt or social censure (see Chaikin & Darley, 1973). Derogating the victim of injustice could serve both motives better than some other strategies, such as compensating the victim. The use of the Internet offers the additional benefit of enabling both a universal and targeted program as initial activities can include screening for risk factors and tailoring the subsequent content.

Potential Pitfalls of Cognitive Dissonance

For instance, if there is an inconsistency or dissonance between beliefs and behaviour, something will have to change to resolve that dissonance. In the case of dissonance between beliefs and behaviour, it’s likely that the belief will change in order to restore cognitive consonance. This theory has been discussed since the early days of Festinger’s discovery of cognitive dissonance. The idea is, choosing something that is in opposition to how you feel or believe in will increase cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance theory proposes that people seek psychological consistency between their expectations of life and the existential reality of the world.

What is the theory of cognitive dissonance based on?

It is based on the idea that situations that evoke dissonance do so because they create inconsistency between the self- concept and a behavior. Because most persons have a positive self-concept, persons are likely to experience dissonance when they behave in a way that they view as incompetent, immoral, or irrational.

Researcher Hank Rothgerber stated that people who eat meat may experience internal conflict between their eating habits and their love for animals. This dissonance occurs when someone’s behaviour as meat eater conflicts with a belief, value, or attitude. Cognitive dissonance has been cognitive dissonance treatment made a part of different models for basic learning processes in students. The goal is to improve the self-awareness of students regarding psychological conflicts in their beliefs, ideals, and values. People who grew up in a conservative religion believe premarital sex is a sin.


However, the one-dollar group rated the tasks positively, while the twenty-dollar group rated the tasks negatively. The twenty-dollar group had external justification for their inconsistency–money motivated them to lie to the confederate about the task being interesting when it was actually boring. Receiving only one dollar did not seem to justify lying to the confederate and compelled subjects in the one-dollar group to internalize the “interesting task” mental attitude. The subjects convinced themselves that the tasks were somewhat interesting to rectify the dissonance due to inconsistency between believing the tasks were boring but telling someone they were interesting. Van Veen, Krug, Schooler, and Carter (2009) investigated the neural mechanisms underlying such attitude change processes, using an experimental paradigm called induced compliance (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959). While inside an fMRI scanner, participants were asked to tell yet-to-be-tested participants outside the room that they enjoyed performing the boring task in the uncomfortable scanner environment.

Inconsistent cognitions that result from freely chosen behavior are more likely to produce dissonance and subsequent efforts to restore perceptions of consonance. This idea has been productively applied to health behavior change interventions, from physical activity to smoking cessation (e.g., Chatzisarantis, Hagger, & Wang, 2008; Lando & Davison, 1975). The basic point is that if people put forth effort toward a productive health goal under conditions of high choice, they should come to endorse that health behavior more strongly. The number of variations within this approach to self-evaluation regulation is also substantial. An example of this approach is cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger 1957).

Mandela effect explained including examples

Similarly, in the course of everyday decision-making, people may find themselves presented with options that have advantages and disadvantages, leading to dissonance once they have made a decision. Thus, if they put forth extensive effort for an action with little payoff, they may experience cognitive dissonance. By bringing attention to the inconsistencies in our minds, cognitive dissonance may present an opportunity for growth. People who feel it could realize, for example, that they need to update their beliefs to reflect the truth, or change their behavior to better match the person they want to be. While cognitive dissonance is often described as something widely and regularly experienced, efforts to capture it in studies don’t always work, so it could be less common than has been assumed. People do not necessarily experience discomfort in response to every apparent contradiction in their thoughts and beliefs.

This theory is subjective because we cannot physically observe cognitive dissonance so we cannot obtain any objective measurements. It has a sort of vagueness in its nature because every people will have their differences always. People engage in attitude-discrepant behaviors when the behavior seems good or appealing to them and when the attitude isn’t strong enough to hinder them from engaging in certain behavior. Cognitive dissonance is experienced at a higher intensity when there are very few reasons to justify the behavior.


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